Silicon and gallium arsenide both begin their progression from raw crystal to electronic device similarly. Both materials are fashioned into what electronics manufacturers call wafers. These are flat, circular platters of purified material. Subsequent manufacturing steps create computer chips, solar cells or other electronic devices on top of these wafers. But it can cost about $5000 to make a wafer of gallium arsenide 8″ in diameter, versus $5 for a silicon wafer … The new Stanford process seeks to lessen this thousand-to-one cost differential by re-using that $5000 wafer.
“This is the highest efficiency ever reported for sunlight conversion into electricity,” UNSW Scientia Professor and Director of the Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) Professor Martin Green said.
“We used commercial solar cells, but in a new way, so these efficiency improvements are readily accessible to the solar industry,” added Dr Mark Keevers, the UNSW solar scientist who managed the project.
“The new results are based on the use of focused sunlight and are particularly relevant to photovoltaic power towers being developed in Australia,” Professor Green said.
This fact sheet was released in March 2013. In Australia, regulatory requirements for computers are set under the Greenhouse and Energy Minimum Standards (Computer) Determination 2012 (Determination). The Determination specifies what products are and are not covered, and incorporates requirements for Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS), Energy Rating Labels (ERL) and testing from the relevant Australian/New Zealand Standard by reference.
This becomes mandatory in Australia from 01 October 2013.
For decades, choosing a new or replacement light bulb has been easy: consumers would look at the wattage … (however) replacement of incandescent bulbs by energy-efficient products… introduced confusion … as … producers often only gave the watt equivalent of the new bulbs. … The situation is no clearer now that LED-based lamps are becoming more popular and increasing in efficiency all the time.
Watts indicate the power needed to light the bulb, and lumens indicates the amount of visible light emitted by a source. The value of the bulbs required may differ according to the lighting effect desired. The table in the article gives average ratings for incandescent, CFL and LED bulbs.
A new technology in the magnetic cooling of chips based on the straining of materials is claimed will lessen the impact on the environment compared to current technologies.
“These new tools include what we believe to be a world’s first for rating the environmental performance of the IT equipment within a data centre,” Robyn says.